A variety of dietary supplements are used to enhance the overall or to help reduce the risk of various diseases. One of the most commonly used supplement is the legendary multiple vitamin and mineral supplement (multi-vit/min) that is intended to compensate for nutrients that can or may be limited in a person’s diet. The amounts of the various nutrients in the multi-vit/min that are reasonable and sensible depend on the needs of the individual’s and their intake of nutrients from other sources. As a rule of thumb, the safe level of nutrients in a multi-vit/min should be around 100% of the DV. But there some notable exceptions to this general rule.
Vitamin A, if it is present in a supplement only as retinal (will usually indicate as retinyl palmitate or vitamin A palmitate) rather than carotene, will be less than 100% of the DV. A high intake of retinal, but not B- carotene, is associated with increased incidence of conception and during early pregnancy may increases the risk of birth defects.
Concerns also exist for including large doses of B-carotene in a dietary supplement. Two large intervention trials reported an increased incidence of lung cancer in many smokers who were taking 20-to 30-mg/day supplements of B-carotene. However, my friends, a large study of 22,071 physicians reported no effect on cancer incidence, or mortality in any of those taking 50 mg/day of B-carotene and was found that supplementation in those with initially low blood levels of B-carotene helped reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. Yet another large study conducted in China found that a daily supplementation with 15 mg of B-carotene in the combination with 50 ug of selenium and 30 mg of a-tocopherol was then associated with a 13% reduction in cancer risk, mainly as a result of a decreased incidence of gastric cancer. Consequently, as you can see, supplementation with B-carotene remains controversial and appears to be my friends most clearly contradicted in the smokers.
Calcium should always be at low levels or not added in a multi-vit/min because taking 100% of the RDA, which is(1,000 mg) of elemental calcium, would make the supplement pill much too large to swallow easily. Second, to have the best absorption, it is preferable to consume calcium with a meal, spaced throughout the day, rather than to ingest 100% of the daily needs at one time. Third, excess calcium consumed with other minerals can and may decrease the absorption of some important trace minerals.
Among the B vitamins, niacin, B/6-9 and folic acid have UL values. Because niacin and folic acid, the adult ULs are only 2.2 and 2.5 times their respective RDA values. The UL for vitamin B6 of 100 mg is 77 time the RDA. However, my friends, the FSA Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals SUL value for the daily consumption of supplemental vitamin B6 is only 10 mg/day. At one tenth the UL value set by the U.s. Food and Nutrition Board, this value is based on the assumption that this SUL intake for supplemental B6 is reasonably safe for one to consume over the lifetime of an adult.
Some of the B vitamins (B 1, B 2, B 12, pantothenic acid, and biotin) will not have UL values because of the lack of data on adverse effects. For these nutrients, the FSA Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals established guidance levels that can at least provide a reasonable frame of reference.
Deficiencies of vitamins and minerals can impair the desire and ability to perform physical activity. In addition to that, many nutrient deficiencies can cause emotional and mental problems. Clearly, iron deficiency has been shown to affect both mental and physical function adversely. Also, a deficiency of some of the B vitamins can affect the emotional state and mental functions. Perhaps the most common example of this is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, which is most commonly seen in our elderly and in those who are vegetarians. In our elderly, emotional and mental changes caused by vitamin B12 deficiency are often mistaken for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.
The condition can be reversed if corrected early in the deficiency state. If not, the nerve damage and dementia symptoms can be irreversible. However, correcting the deficiency will prevent any further progression of the problems and potentially cause some reversal of the symptoms. Because malabsorption is the usual cause of vitamin B12 deficiency, the usual treatment is to receive monthly injections of the B12 vitamin. However, some of the research indicates that high-dose oral supplementation in the range of 200 to 2,000 ug/ a day may be as effective as injections.
Selecting a multiple vitamin and mineral supplement within reasonable levels of each nutrient for an individual is not my friends a simple task. Because it is not unusual to fine multi-vit/ mins with some nutrient levels that exceed the UL or SUL values. Note that the upper level numbers (UL, SUL, and guidance level) for some nutrients are much closer to the RDA or AI than they are for others
Comparing the DA amounts (the reference values on food and dietary supplement labels) for fort nutrients to the current levels of recommended intake and upper limits. The recommended intakes for these nutrients are relatively close to the common recommendations for upper limits, some people are more likely to consume excessive amounts of these nutrients from supplements and fortified foods combined. Although my friends the effects of vitamin D toxicity are very well known, vitamin D researchers are currently recommending that the recommended intake and the tolerable upper intake levels be substantially increased in the next revision of the Dietary Reference Intake values for the vitamin.
The amount of each nutrient in a supplement that is most appropriate for a person depends on the amount of the nutrients in his or her diet. Despite all the claims to the contrary, today’s food supply is not devoid of nutrients. Certainly it is possible to select a diet composed mostly of overly refined foods that can provide limited amounts of minerals and vitamins and plenty of calories. However, with all the plethora of fortified foods (energy bars, breakfast cereals, protein powders, and just about everything with a calcium-fortified option), it is differently quite possible to consume excessive amounts of some nutrients even without taking any dietary supplements. Consequently, decisions to use the many dietary supplements should be made in the context of atypical diet, with special attention to use of foods fortified with vitamins and minerals.
DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS USED FOR SPECIFIC ADAPTATION
(1) Most individuals may benefit from the use of a mineral formula and a multivitamin (in addition to a separate calcium supplement) to complement their efforts to consume a proper diet.
(2) Specific nutrient compounds, when are ingested and manufactures properly, can allow the body to operate at full capacity, and yes, without disturbing its natural physiology.
(3) The effects of the dietary supplement use may vary among people based on the dietary intake of nutrients and physiologic and psychologic individuality; The manufacturing methods and the ingredients used to produce a supplement also may affect the final results.
(4) The general population should not use dietary supplements for medicinal purposes, unless recommended by a health professional that is qualified. Such a practitioner will have experience in treating diseases and symptoms with both natural compounds and prescription drugs and will have performed the necessary research to choose the safest and the most effective therapy.
May you be always in good health, humbly your Paul Earl.
META TITLE VITAMINS MINERALS SUPPLEMENTS-THE TRUTH
META DESCRIPTION What VITAMINS MINERALS SUPPLEMENTS do for the body and what they will not do for the body, the dangers and the myths